**Preface**

This series is aimed at providing tools for an electrical engineer to analyze data and solve problems in design. The focus is on applying calculus to equations or physical systems.

**Introduction**

This article will introduce limits.

There are many calculus references, the one I like to use is Calculus by Larson, Edwards and Hostetler.

This also assumes you are familiar with Python or can stumble your way through it.

**Concepts***Limit: *the value a function approaches as it gets close to a given input coordinate.

*Asymptote: *the value f(x) approaches as x approaches infinity if f(x) approaches a constant value.

**Formal Definition of a Limit**

Let f be a function and let c and L be real numbers. The limit of *f(x)* as x approaches c is L iff:

lim_{x->c-}=L and lim_{x->c+}=L (i.e. the same from the left and from the right).

For functions of more than one variable the definition is the same, but extended to all variables simultaneously (e.g. an area shrinks to one point, a volume shrink to one point, etc).

**Common Symptoms of Non-Existent Limits**

- f(x) approaches a different number from the left and right
- f(x) increases/decreases without bound
- f(x) oscillates

**Definition of Continuity**

A function f is continuous at c if the following three conditions are met:

- f(c) is defined
- lim
_{x->c}f(x) exists - lim
_{x->c}= f(c)

Functions can also be open on an interval or everywhere continuous (infinite).

**Properties of Limits**

General Form | lim_{s->c} f(x)=L; lim_{s->c} g(x)=K |

Constant | lim_{x->c} b=b |

Variable | lim_{x->c} x=c |

Scalar Power | lim_{x->c} x^{n}=c^{n} |

Scalar Multiple | lim_{x->c} b*f(x)=b*L |

Sum/Difference | lim_{x->c} [f(x) +/- g(x)]=L +/- K |

Product | lim_{x->c} f(x)*g(x)=L*K |

Quotient | lim_{x->c} f(x)/g(x)=L/K; providing K != 0 |

Power | lim_{x->c} f(x)^{n}=L^{n} |

Radical | lim_{x->c} rad_{n}(f(x))=rad_{n}(L) |

Where b, c, n, L and K are constants, x is a variable and *providing the limit exists*.

**Limits of Vector Functions**

If **r** is vector-valued function **r(t)** = f(t)**i** + g(t)**j** + h(t)**k**, then

lim_{t->a}**r(t)** = [lim_{t->a} f(t)**i**] + [lim_{t->a} g(t)**j**] + [lim_{t->a} h(t)**k**]

**Next Up**

Derivatives

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